A new study conducted at the University of Liverpool in the United Kingdom began with the aim of better understanding how gravity works outside the Earth, and found results that began to change the understanding of one of the most widely accepted theories in science: Big Bang, A large explosion created the universe, which, in part, is based on Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity.

According to research, the universe does not have a starting point in the Big Bang. It has always been. “Einstein’s theory is not wrong. [do espaço], His theory cannot be applied, so we explored new avenues. ” **சாய் **Physicist engineer Bruno Pento, 25, is the author of a study by a Portuguese scientist.

There were search results Released on the arXivLabs site in September of this year, Maintained by the University Cornell, To disseminate research that has not yet been submitted to scientific journals. He is awaiting review by other scientists for this process.

Article entitled *If Time Was No. The beginning* (If time has not started, in English), which was co-authored with the researcher Condition Jaleel, PhD student in Theoretical Physics at Imperial College London, and British Physics Guide Helen Fe Dowker, Also a teacher at Imperial College.

## What will be the new paths?

In his study, the researcher used the theory of quantum gravity, which is relatively new in the field of physics, called the Castle Set Theory, which supports his thesis. It is used to study areas of space called integrations – the best examples of these similarities being black holes.

Pento began working with Castle Set Theory during his master’s degree in theoretical physics at Imperial. College London, Attracted Mainly for the idea of unraveling the concepts of time physics and quantum gravity. “I immediately wanted to see how theory focuses so much from problems and uses it to propose a solution,” he said.

According to a researcher currently pursuing a doctorate in cosmology and string theory at the University of Liverpool, the explanation behind the formation of the universe is limited to mathematical and physical aspects, and does not involve an understanding of Einstein’s theory of relativity. These are the most recent fields.

“When calculating specific quantities in physics using general relativity, we get a finite result like gravitational force at a given point in space, such as 10, 100 or 1,000, but in some cases [do espaço], There are infinite sizes. For example, the curve of space-time at the center of the black hole is infinite, “the researcher explains.

It is in this aspect that Pento argues that Einstein finds scientific limits to his study. Also it is not considered a finite result physics because it is not a number that can be determined and used in a mathematical equation.

Therefore, it can be assumed that integrals (such as black holes) cannot be explained by physical processes. Einstein’s methods of general relativity have failed to help understand these singular parts.

Another characteristic of integrals is that they are infinite (meaning a sum close to zero in mathematics), which makes them smaller than anything analyzed from a physics point of view.

## What has this got to do with the Big Bang?

According to the most classic interpretation of Einstein’s theory, the universe began in a singularity. The Big Bang was the moment when all things that had accumulated at the infinite point began to expand violently.

However, if integrity is infinite, then this event cannot be considered a beginning because, by definition, an infinite one has no beginning or end.

Based on this relationship, the Portuguese researcher and other scientists in his team came to the theoretical understanding that the universe could have always existed.

According to them, meaningful interpretation, the only system that connects causal relationships between other elements over time, enters into the causal set theory that includes points that are related to each other in space-time.

This may seem confusing, but the researcher gives an example that is closer to our reality. “We can imagine a causal set as a jigsaw puzzle: from a distance it looks like a continuous photograph. But, on closer inspection, we see that it is made up of a certain amount of individual pieces that we can count on.”

Another example is the computer screen, which seems to show us a series of images, but if we give one Zoom in, Which is made up of many separate pixels, which have a certain size, and we can count.

“In our mission, the Big Bang will not be considered a start. [existir] An infinite set of reasons for the past, so there will always be something before that. “

This does not mean that the Big Bang does not exist, but rather that it is a moment of evolution of this set of factors, not the beginning of everything that exists.

“The amount of physical phenomena that seem completely impossible to our intuition is astonishing, and we can study and diagnose by experiment”, “he said. **சாய் **About his interest in the field in which he is studying.

## Next steps

The researchers’ finished article is available for free reading on the arXiv operating system. As pointed out above, research still needs to be subjected to peer review, which is an essential part of scientific publication that confirms the validity of the declared science – these are common steps in many areas of academic knowledge.

And the process will not be as simple as forecasts The theory of causation cannot be tested By the classical scientific method (such as the use of laboratory experiments), but only by mathematical models.

However, the results of Pento’s study pave the way for other scientists to explore this thesis.

Reinforcement is worthwhile: the work does not replace the general theory of relativity, but rather seeks other criteria that allow Einstein’s formulas to fill in the remaining gaps.

“The question now is whether we can define the dynamics or processes that make up these sets of causation and whether they are reasonable. [para o entendimento científico]. For example, they allow us to interact with the general theory of relativity, which is very well studied, “concluded Benedict.

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